Ashiki: religious direction of a folklore vocal and instrumental music of Turkey
Being engaged in search of last-minute tours to Turkey, not the superfluous will get acquainted and with rich musical culture of this country. Then you learn that ашики — it is left of tradition алеви national troubadours. Now алеви, initially hetero-orthodox Muslim communities internal Anatoli, especially provinces Sivas, Tundzheli, Chorum and Erzincan, were settled on all country. It is considered that from 70 million their all Turkish population about 20 million are. In a literary translation «ашик» "lover" means. Ashiki fall into a trance, during which receive from the prophet Ilyasa (Ilya) gifts of musical and spiritual knowledge in search of which they and wander on the country. Their repertoire usually consists of songs about mystical search with addresses to various sacred and to Mohammed, Ali’s cousin whom they consider as the lineal heir of spiritual tradition of the Prophet that does them by Shiites, whose religious practice, however, differs from Arab and Persian a little. The belief алеви which left also an award of dervishes бекташи, is based on religious tolerance, doctrines from sacred and bards, equality of men and women. Ashiki play important role in regular religious ceremonies (jams) which include prayers, the recitation, singing and culmination circular dance, to this. Music алеви (as well as all their culture) is more traditional and is national, than classical ritual of Mevlevi. On Sundays and Sunni holidays it is possible to visit jams алеви and to hear a peculiar instrumental music of Turkey in Sakhkula Sultan текке (Мердивенкёй) or in a mosque Karadzha Ahmet Sultan (Uskyudar) in Istanbul. Solo саз in tradition алеви it is considered almost sacral tool full of spiritual value which is a material embodiment of spirit of Ali: the resonator represents his body, a signature stamp — a sword Zulfykar, frets — twelve imams. Saz алеви has special control therefore it publishes especially loud and abstruse sound with difficult drawing which turns out when switching organ points. In many songs алеви the Sultan Abdal, the ashike-martyr of the XVI century, executed that it lifted revolt against Ottoman board is sung about the Feast. The village Banaz near to Sivas where he was born, is to this day a place of mass pilgrimage. Even if you go to Turkey for 3 days, it is necessary to hear this unique music.
Glorified ашики – Turkish musicians of the past
As a whole алеви, and especially them ашики, always were a contempt and mistrust subject from orthodox Sunnites, on what the authorities often simply closed eyes. Especially visually it was shown, when on July 2, 1993 fundamentalists attacked and set fire to hotel in Sivas where there passed joint conference алеви and left. Thus 37 poets and ашиков were lost, however 128 people involved in 1994 in criminal liability on this case, were or are released on freedom, or received small terms disproportionate to their crime. Ashik Veysel (1894-1973) who was born in the city of Sivrialan of the province Sivas was one of the most glorified ашиков. In seven years during epidemic of smallpox which killed his two brothers, it lost sight. He did not fall into a trance, as it was accepted, but was trained in game on сазе at local masters. Its most known songs which have become a part of popular Turkish music, such works, as "Dostlar Beni Hatyrlasyn" («Let I am remembered by friends») «, Kara Toplak» («The black earth») and "Uzun Indzhe Bir Eldayym" («I on a long, difficult way») which represent mystical reflections of the person about life are. Ashik Veysel actively supported the sekulyarny changes which have begun in the young Turkish Republic promising social shifts for which many so hoped алеви. It placed the talent in the service of the power and began to explain to inhabitants of an anatoliysky remote place the basic principles of a new mode, for what was awarded many awards, and in 1965 — and personal state pension. However, soon after that he died in the hometown at not till the end of found out circumstances.
Art revival ашиков in Turkey: musical duels
Tradition revival ашиков in Turkish musical culture began in the early seventies. The opera singer and the master of game on сазе SU Rukh became her inspirer. It did not belong to алеви, but was irreconcilable left, for as lost work in the state opera. While performers of a mainstream constantly had to go on various compromises, dismissal released it therefore some albums which actively were on sale were written down and do not lose the urgency still. Musa Erogla started to sing national songs of the native Mersin, and now many consider his creativity by the best modern embodiment of tradition ашиков. Arif Sag, Erogla, Yavuz Top and younger, lost on fire of hotel of the Turkish city of Sivas – Mukhlis Akarsu made a number of remarkable solo records, and also records of their general Mukhabbet ensemble. Unfortunately, the most outstanding works "Mukhabbeta" are now available only on cartridges. The best music ашиков always contained the hidden political implication. In creativity Ali Izzet and Makhsuni Cheriffe it is expressed more brightly — in them there is all scale of feelings from a furious protest against social and political injustice to soft satire on Turkish passion to football. Their songs which are especially popular at left end 1960th, still find the place in repertoire everything new and new generations of young performers. The last, but from it not less bright representative of this tradition is Feyzullakh Chinar from Ankara, "opened" during one of congresses ашиков which annually pass at the mausoleum of the founder of an award of dervishes бекташи Hagi Bektash Veli. Traditionally ашики lived that entertained people in cafe songs and stories. They were especially popular in the northeast of Kars and Erzincan where the public often with delight watched verbal duels between two singers who were accompanied by songs on in advance agreed subjects and musical schemes. In attention all was accepted from appearance to characteristics of performers, and competition came to an end only when one of the competing was unable answer the next florid phrase of the rival witty. Despite a language barrier, these duels it is necessary to observe at least to plunge into their atmosphere, it is better to understand spiritual and cultural traditions of Turkey, to hear explosions of a laughter and to see, how on cheeks tired to laugh the audience tears slide. Today as the main masters of these competitions are considered Ashik Sheref Tashlyova and Murat Chobanogla which from time to time it is possible to see in cafe Chobanogla in Brown. ашиков which represent one of genres of solo performance to the accompaniment саза, it is easy to distinguish songs by hearing even that who is absolutely not familiar with Turkish music. However, was and some experiments of performances ашиков with an orchestra which is most known among which there was «A concert for Baglama» Arif Saga, created in cooperation with two more instrumentalists which are considered today as the best performers of melodies on сазе: the successor of existing tradition Erdal Erzindzhanom and the head of a chamber sazovy quintet Erol Parlak. In the mid-eighties it is unusually popular, including not only within the country, there was a performer to the Turkoman (national songs) Belkis Akkal. Under the direction of Arif Saga she wrote down some disks where its deep, gentle voice sounds to the accompaniment of the whole orchestra setting a rhythm, hooting сазов. Now among talented young generation ашиков Gyulay, Kubata and Sabakhat Akkiraz which act in traditions алеви are allocated, but are capable to take part and in modern musical projects. The group repertoire "Kardesh Tyurkuler" represents a peculiar cut of national musical culture of Turkey: a fine selection from music алеви, Kurds, Armenians, Greeks, and also traditional and modern Turkish motives in new processings where fine game on зурне and сазе is supplemented by sounds of electrobasses, a classical guitar, a violin and an accordion. Very much we recommend to get their CD disks "Mastiff" and "Hemavaz". Listening of this music diversifies your cultural leisure where you would not be: on a trip or in hotels of Turkey for youth rest.
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